Vintage Articles on the History of
Electronic Calculators



Creativity and Contribution Display in Full Screen Tadao Kashio
These are the reminiscences of Tadao Kashio (1917-1993), the founder of Casio Computer, Co. Ltd., expressed from his memories of childhood to the realization of his dream.
(Posted with permission of Casio Computers Co., Ltd - 02/12/98)
Old Casio Calculators Ray Mackay
History of Casio Calculators. (1969-Current)
Heinz Nixdorf Mark Greenia
Heinz Nixdorf develops the first electronic calculators (1953-1990)
Heinz Nixdorf and the Nixdorf Computer AG Margret Amedick  and Ulf Hashagen
A biographical note on Heinz Nixdorf and his company (1951-1992)
The Doctor and his Calculators James Redin
Dr. An Wang and his involvement with the electronic calculators (1949-1971)
Wang Model 360SE Calculator System Rick Bensene
Wang Labs develop the Wang 360 System (1966 -1968)
A Tale of Two Brains James Redin
The invention of the Integrated Circuit by Jack S. Kilby and Robert Norton Noyce (1958-1959)
Three Men and a Chip Irene Kim
Jack Kilby, Jerry Merryman, and James Van Tassel invent the handheld calculator (1965-1970)
The History of the Microcomputer - Invention and Evolution Stanley Mazor
The invention of the microcomputer as told by one if its co-inventors (1969-1978).
Moore's "Promise" and Early Microcomputer Developments Stanley Mazor
Streaming video of a lecture given in Feb 2000 by Stanley Mazor at Stanford University (45 min.)
The MCM/70 Microcomputer Zbigniew Stachniak
The history of the first personal microcomputer launched in 1973 - Canada.
Microprocessor History - Foundations in Glenrothes - Scotland Jim McGonigal
The beginnings of the microprocessor ideas at Elliot Automation.
Intel's Accidental Revolution   Michael Kanellos
An interesting review on the facts that lead to the invention of the microprocesor. (C/Net Special Reports).
The calculators and the microprocessor James Redin
Ted Hoff of INTEL invents the microprocessor while improving NCM's design for Busicom calculators (1969-1971)
Innovation: The World's first MPU 4004 Busicom Corp.
Busicom's notes about the development of the Intel 4004 chip. (1969-1971)
Agreement between Intel and NCM Intel/NCM
A transcription of the original agreement posted with permission of Busicom Corp. (1970)
PH or HP? Gene Wright
Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard flip a coin to determine the name of their new company. Guess who won? (1939-1970)
HP or the death of the Slide Rule James Redin
Hewlett-Packard develops the HP-35, "the one single product that forever changed the whole image of the computer industry" (1968-1972)
HP Calculator History Wlodek Jedrzejowicz
A series of articles on early Hewlett-Packard models published in DATAFILE - The Journal of HPCC (1972-1977)
The Birth of a New Age Guy Ball
The early years of the electronic calculators (1969-1975)
The Calculator Wars James Redin
The invention of the pocket calculator by Texas Instruments starts a race for the calculator market with few survivors (1965-1990)
"Red" Calculators Kenton Green
The USSR fights its cold war in the calculator arena (1973-1986)
Soviet Calculators History Sergei Frolov
History and features of Soviet Calculators (abacus to 1986)
Commodore Calculators Larry Gilbert
History of Commodore Calculators (1971-1978)
Uncle Sinclair Anoop Sahal
Comments about Sir Clive Sinclair
Recollections of the Walther Company's Venture into Electronics Ray MacKay
Comments on the transition from mechanical calculators to electronic calculators as witnessed by the author.
The Story of the Datamath Calculator Joerg Woerner
An article on the history of the development of TI's Datamath calculator.
The History of Calculators and Computers Clive Maxfield
Cool notes and pictures related to the history of calculating devices.
The Story of Mister Rocket  Serge Devidts
An article on the history of Mr. Sasaki Tadashi and the Sharp calculators.
Things that count: The rise and fall of calculators  Jim Falk
A very nice history of calculators.


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Revised: April 27, 2014.