History of Calculators - Timeline

History


1917 Nov Tadao Kashio is born in Nangoku City, in Japan. (13)
1920 Feb 7 An Wang is born in Shanghai, China. (1)
1923 Nov 8 Jack Sinclair Kilby is born in Jefferson City, Missouri. (2)
1927 Dec 12 Robert Norton Noyce is born in Burlington, Iowa. (2)
1937 Oct 28 Marcian Hoff is born in Rochester, New York. (3)
1939 William Hewlett obtains his degree in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University. (5)
Jan William Hewlett and David Packard found Hewlett-Packard in the garage of a Palo Alto house with an investment of $538. (3) (4) (5)
1943 Apr Tadao Kashio founds Kashio Seisakujo - a metal shop. (13)
1945 An Wang immigrates to the US. (1)
1948 Jun Dr. An Wang obtains his Ph.D. Degree in Applied Physics at Harvard University. (1)
1949 Sep Tadao Kashio sees an electric calculator for the first time in a business show in Tokio, and with his brother Toshio decides to build a solenoid calculator. (13)
Oct 21 An Wang files his patent application for a "Pulse Transfer Controlling Device." (1)
1950 Hewlett-Packard, with 200 employees, had grown to be one of the largest manufacturers of test and measurement electronic instruments. (5)
Jack Kilby gets an EEMS from the University of Wisconsin. (2)
Tadao Kasio's brothers, Kasuo and Yukio joins efforts with Tadao and Toshio, and complete the development of their first solenoid calculator. (13)
1951 Jun 22 Dr. An Wang founds Wang Laboratories with $600 of his savings. (1)
1953 Robert Noyce obtains his Ph.D. in Physics at the MIT. (2)
1955 May 17 Dr. An Wang is granted patent 2,708,722 for a "Pulse Transfer Controlling Device." (1)
Jun 30 Wang Laboratories is officially incorporated. (1)
1956 Mar Dr. An Wang assigns his patent to IBM. (1)
Kashio brothers redesign the solenoid calculator to use relays. Prototype weighed 120 kg and was 1 meter wide. (13)
1957 Dr. Robert Noyce founds with other friends Fairchild Semiconductor Corp. (2)
Jun 1 Kashio brothers found Casio Computer Co., Ltd. to manufacture relay calculators, and introduce its first model, the Casio 14-A, based in 342 relays. (13)
1958 Jack Kilby joins Texas Instruments. (2)
1959 Jack Kilby from Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce from Fairchild Semiconductor co-invent the Integrated Circuit. (2) (10)
Apr Casio introduces its second relay calculator, the Casio 14-B, with square root function. (13)
1960 Mar Casio introduces a scientific relay calculator, the Casio 301. (13)
1961 Fairchild Semiconductor introduces the first commercial Integrated Circuits. (2)
1962 Mar Casio introduces a programmable scientific relay calculator, the Casio AL-1. (13)
Ted Hoff obtains his Ph.D. Degree in Electrical Engineering at Stanford University. (3)
1963 Sumlock Comptometer, in England, produces the first all-electronic calculator, the ANITA (A New Inspiration To Arithmetic). (1) (12)
1964 Wang Laboratories designs the LOCI (Logarithmic Calculating Instrument), the first scientific electronic calculator. (1)
Jul Sharp Corp. of Japan introduces the first transistorized calculator, the SHARP CS-10A, which weighed 55 pounds. Price: $2500. (1) (8) (13)
Jack Kilby and Texas Instruments are granted patent Patent No. 3,138,743 for "Miniaturized Electronic Circuits." (Integrated Circuits). (2)
VEGA - first Soviet electronic calculator (14)
1965 Wang Laboratories launches the WANG 300, their first electronic calculator. Price: $1,700. (1)
Aug Casio introduces its first electronic calculator, the Model 001, and stops making relay calculators. (13)
Sep Jack Kilby from Texas Instruments decides to build a hand-held calculator based on the Integrated Circuits invented by him in 1959. (8) (10) (12)
1966 Wang Laboratories launches the WANG 370. (1)
1967 Wang Laboratories launches the WANG 380 one of the first calculators able to generate logarithms and exponentials. Price: $3,800. (1)
Mar Texas Instruments completes the prototype of the 1st hand-held calculator "Cal-Tech." It used a thermal printer to display the results. (8) (12)
Sep 29 Jack Kilby, Jerry Merryman, and James Van Tassel of Texas Instruments apply for a patent for a hand-held calculator based in the "Cal-Tech." (8) (10)
EDVM - first Soviet electronic scientific calculator. (14)
1968 INTEL is founded by Dr. Robert Norton Noyce and Gordon E. Moore. (3)
Dr. Ted Hoff starts working for INTEL as its 12th. employee. (3)
Mar Hewlett-Packard introduces the HP-9100, an electronic scientific desk-top calculator aimed to compete with the WANG 300 series. Price: $4,900. (4) (5)
Bill Hewlett instructs his engineers at Hewlett-Packard to start the design of a scientific pocket calculator. (4) (5)
1969 Mostek is founded in 1969 in Carrollton Texas. (5)
Oct Casio Computer Co., Ltd. becomes a public corporation in Japan. (13)
Jun Busicom proposes INTEL the manufacture of a set of IC's designed to build a series of electronic calculators. (3)
Aug Dr. Ted Hoff explains Masatoshi Shima of Busicom his microprocessor approach. (3)
Wang Laboratories launches the WANG 700 to counteract the competition imposed by the Hewlett Packard HP9100. (1)
1970 INTEL completes the development of the INTEL 4004 4-bit microprocessor for Busicom calculators. (3) (7) (12)
Apr Canon, Inc. and Texas Instruments introduce the "Pocketronic" in Japan based in the "Cal-Tech" calculator. $395. (8) (10) (12)
Busicom introduces the desktop printing calculator, model 141-PF with the INTEL 4004 chip. (12)
1971 Nov INTEL launches the INTEL 4004 chip to the market with 2300 transistors. (3)
Feb Canon introduces the "Pocketronic" in the USA. $345. (8)
Sep Bowmar, a manufacturer of LED displays, introduces the 901B, perhaps the first true pocket calculator, possibly the first with an LED display, and certainly the first manufactured in the U.S. $240. (12)
Sep Commodore introduces its first calculator (manufactured by Bowmar), the C110. (11)
Dr. An Wang decides to move into a new direction: word processing and computers instead of calculators. (1)
1972 Jan Commodore introduces the Minuteman 1. (11)
Apr INTEL launches the INTEL 8008 8-bit microprocessor with 3,500 transistors. (3) (7)
Jul 1 Hewlett Packard introduces the HP-35, the first scientific pocket calculator. $395. (5) (6) (7) (12)
ARISTO, DENNER & PAPE, a slide rule manufacturer since 1872, enters the market of hand held calculators with the ARISTO M27, a four-function calculator based in TI chips. Price: 460 DM. (8)
Jun Texas Instruments introduces its first calculator the TI-2500 "Datamath." $120. (8)
Commodore introduces the Minuteman 2. (11)
Aug Casio introduces the "Casio Mini" pocket calculator. By 1973 more than 10 million units were sold. (13)
1973 Feb 1 Hewlett Packard introduces the HP-80, a business model. $395. (5) (6)
Texas Instruments introduces the SR-50 Slide Rule Calculator - $170. (8)
May 1 Hewlett Packard introduces the HP-45, a scientific model. $395. (5) (6)
Aug 1 Hewlett Packard introduces the HP-70, a business model. $275. (6)
Aug The USSR State Committee establishes a team to develop a hand-held electronic calculator to be manufactured in the Soviet Union. (9)
Sep National Semiconductor introduces the model 600 at $29.95. (11) (12)
ARISTO, DENNER & PAPE, introduces the ARISTO M36, a four-function calculator with a memory and swap key. (8)
Commodore introduces the Minuteman 3. (11)
Dozens of companies enter the market in the 1972-1973 period. (12)
1974 Jan 19 Hewlett Packard introduces the HP-65, the first scientific programmable calculator. $795. (5) (6) (12)
ARISTO, DENNER & PAPE, introduces the ARISTO M75, a scientific calculator. (8)
Apr INTEL launches the INTEL-8080 8-bit microprocessor with 6,000 transistors. (3) (7)
May The USSR team completes the Elektronika B3-04 prototype. Production starts on the same year. (9)
Jun 25 Texas Instruments is granted patent 3,819,921 for a "Miniature Electronic Calculator." (8)
The price wars began and Commodore introduces the low-priced 700/800 series, some sold in the $10 range. (11)
Litronix (2200 series), Casio (FX-10), Sperry Remington (SSR-8), Bowmar (MX-100), and Canon (F-5), enter into the arena. (11)
Commodore introduces their 1st scientific model the SR-1400. (11)
1975 Jan 1 Hewlett Packard introduces the HP-55, a reduced version of the HP-65. $395. (5) (6)
Feb 1 Hewlett Packard introduces the HP-21, a small scientific unit. $125. (6)
Aug 1 Hewlett Packard introduces the HP-22, a small business unit. $165. (6)
Hewlett Packard introduces the HP-25, a small programmable unit.
(6)
Keuffel & Esser manufactures its last slide-rule. (5)
ARISTO, DENNER & PAPE manufactures its last slide-rule. (8)
Hundreds of companies manufacture thousands of different models of LED pocket calculators all around the world. (8)
Elektronika B3-18 - first Soviet pocket scientific calculator. (14)
Dec 4 The Smithsonian Museum accepts Texas Instruments donation of the "Cal-Tech" prototype, the first hand-held calculator. (8)
1976 Bowmar, once considered the World's largest manufacturer of calculators, files for bankruptcy. (8)
The USSR launches the Elektronika B3-09 and B3-14. (9)
Mar 1 Hewlett Packard introduces the HP-91, a "Scientific Portable Printing Calculator." $500. (6)
Hewlett Packard develops the HP-95C - Never sold in the market. (6)
Jul 1 Hewlett Packard introduces the HP-25C, HP67, and HP97. (6)
1977 Wang Laboratories introduces the VS Wang computer line. (1)
Jul 1 Hewlett Packard introduces the HP-29C, HP10, and HP92. (6)
Commodore introduces their ultimate specialized calculators: M55, N60, S61 (known as the "Series 60" line). (11)
The USSR launches the Elektronika B3-19M, the first soviet true RPN calculator and the Elektronika B3-21, the first Soviet programmable calculator. (9) (14).
Commodore introduces the PET personal computer and at that point backs away from calculators. (11)
1978 ARISTO, DENNER & PAPE withdraws from the calculator market. (8)
Jun INTEL launches the INTEL 8086 16-bit microprocessor with 29,000 transistors. (3) (7)
1979 Jun INTEL launches the INTEL 8088 16-bit microprocessor. (3) (7)
The USSR launches the Elektronika B3-30, with Sharp's LCD technology. (9)
The USSR launches the Elektronika MK-40 - first (and last) Soviet printer calculator. (14)
1980
1982 Feb INTEL launches the INTEL 80286 16-bit microprocessor with 134,000 transistors. (3)
Dr. An Wang retires from his active involvement in Wang Laboratories. (1)
Elektronika MK-60 - first Soviet calculator with solar power. (14)
1984
1985 Oct INTEL launches the INTEL 80386 32-bit microprocessor with 275,000 transistors. (3)
The USSR launches the MK-52 with EEPROM and external programs  (14).
1986 Wang Laboratories reaches sales in the order of 3 billion dollars with 30,000 employees. (1)
The MK-52  was the last Soviet-designed calculator. Soon the production of Soviet calculators was handled by Casio and Sharp in Japan. (9)
1987 MK-85 - first Soviet calculator with BASIC. (14)
1989 Apr INTEL launches the INTEL 80486 32-bit microprocessor with 1,180,235 transistors. (3)
Jack Kilby, Jerry Merryman, and James Van Tassel of Texas Instruments are presented the ASME Holley Medal. (10)
1990 Mar 24 Dr. An Wang dies of cancer. (1)
Jun 3 Dr. Robert Norton Noyce dies. (2)
The war of the pocket calculators was over and a few companies survived, among them were Texas Instruments and Hewlett-Packard in the USA, and Sharp Electronics and Casio, Inc. in the Japan. (8)
1993 Mar INTEL launches the PENTIUM 32-bit microprocessor with 3.1 million transistors. (3)
Tadao Kashio, founder of Casio Computer, Co. Ltd. dies.
1995 Nov INTEL launches the PENTIUM PRO microprocessor with 5.5 million transistors. (3)

Sources

(1) The Doctor and his calculators James Redin
(2) A Tale of Two Brains James Redin
(3) The calculators and the microprocessor James Redin
(4) PH or HP? Gene Wright
(5) HP or the death of the Slide Rule James Redin
(6) HP Calculator History Wlodek Jedrzejowicz
(7) The Birth of a New Age Guy Ball
(8) The Calculator Wars James Redin
(9) "Red" Calculators Kenton Green
(10) Three Men and a Chip Irene Kim
(11) Commodore Calculators Larry Gilbert
(12) How to Collect LED Pocket Calculators Larry Gilbert
(13) Creativity and Contribution Tadao Kashio
(14) Soviet Calculators History Sergei Frolov


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Copyright James Redin - Revised: May 05, 2007.